A Book Review of Milan Kundera's The Unbearable Lightness of Being

In the 1980s, Milan Kundera wrote the first two novels that would later be known as his Czech trilogy. These were The Unbearable Lightness of Being, published in 1984 and translated into English in 1988, and Immortality, published in 1990. These books bear witness to a time when totalitarianism was collapsing throughout Eastern Europe; they do so by giving expression to a literary realism which is both subtle and complex. In The Unbearable Lightness of Being, the protagonist Tomas is torn between his love for two women: his wife, with whom he has a child, and Tereza, a fellow teacher who lives alone. While Tomas’s wife is practical and conservative (which she refers to as “light”), Tereza is intellectual and independent (which she refers to as “heavy”).

Themes in Kundera's The Unbearable Lightness of Being

Kundera’s novel explores themes of love, identity, and history. The novel also addresses existential themes, such as the human condition, choice, and the concept of being “unbearably light.” Kundera’s novel also explores the nature of totalitarianism, particularly in relation to art and the relationship between culture and politics. The novel explores the nature of love. Kundera raises the question of whether the feeling of love can be reduced to a “chemical reaction.” Kundera explores the idea of love as a choice, as something that we do, rather than something that happens to us. He contrasts “light” love, which is passionate and intense, with “heavy” love, which is rooted in deep commitment. The novel also explores identity, particularly the relationship between the individual and the collective. Tomas is both a Czech and a member of the avant garde artistic movement “The Aesthetic Circle.” However, the movement is suppressed by the authorities. Tomas’s fear of the authorities’ power and his marginal position in society leads him to behave in a conformist way. The novel explores the nature of history, particularly totalitarian history. Kundera suggests that totalitarianism, in its attempt to impose itself on the present and future, also exerts a strong presence in the past. He suggests that, in order to escape the past, one must break free from language, which is a tool of totalitarianism.

Why does Tomas love Tereza?

Kundera’s novel explores the concept of romantic love, which many people believe is a natural, instinctual phenomenon. Kundera suggests that romantic love is, in fact, a cultural construct. Romantic love, Kundera suggests, is a product of Western civilization and, in particular, the Romantic movement, which emerged in the late eighteenth century. Romantic love, Kundera implies, is an ideological construct that arose in response to the Enlightenment’s rationalist impulse. Romantic love, far from being natural and spontaneous, is in fact highly artificial. Romantic ideas about love, Kundera suggests, have their roots in the “liebesgedicht,” a German form of verse that emerged in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The “liebesgedicht” is a highly rhetorical, artificial form of verse that is motivated by a sense of duty.

Why does Tomas feel trapped with Sabine?

Kundera’s novel explores the idea that love is a source not only of pleasure, but also of pain. Kundera suggests that true love is connected with suffering. Kundera’s novel explores the idea that the source of suffering in love is the feeling of being trapped. Tomas feels trapped, as if he is living in a prison, because he cannot break free from his relationship with Sabine. Kundera suggests that the reason Tomas cannot break free from Sabine is because he is “unworthy of his suffering.”

Summary: Tomas decides to be with Tereza, but then changes his mind.

Kundera’s novel begins with Tomas’s decision to break up with Tereza. He then meets up with Sabine and they have sex. Tomas then decides to be with Tereza, but then changes his mind. Tomas then meets up with Tereza and they have sex. Finally, Tomas decides to be with Sabine.

Summary: Tomas finally decides to stay with Sabine.

Kundera’s novel concludes with Tomas deciding to remain with Sabine. He chooses to remain with Sabine, rather than with Tereza, because he wants to “stay in one place.” For Tomas, staying in one place means accepting one’s place in history. In order to remain in one place, one must accept one’s own limitations. Tomas recognizes his own limitations and accepts them.


In The Unbearable Lightness of Being, Kundera explores the concept of the unbearable lightness of being. He suggests that the human condition is one of being “unbearably light.” This means that, as human beings, we have no real substance; we have no firm ground on which to stand. Human beings are “unbearably light” because our very existence is fragile and impermanent. Human beings, Kundera suggests, come into the world “indifferently,” without a clear sense of who they are. We spend our lives trying to create a sense of identity for ourselves. However, we can never be entirely sure of who we are. Our identities are always open to revision.


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